Trust & Verify

Trust & Verify is VERTIC's flagship publication, dating back to 1989. The newsletter provides analysis and news of verification and implementation developments, as well as information on VERTIC’s activities. Trust & Verify is published electronically on this website. It can also be received free of charge via email on request. To receive Trust & Verify by email, please enter your email address in the subscription request box on this page. We also welcome submissions to Trust &Verify; these should be sent to Larry MacFaul.

Issue no. 157, Summer 2017

In this issue, Matt Korda's article 'Disruptive, Destabilising, and Dual-Use: The Proliferation Risks of 3-D Printing' discusses some basic security concerns related to additive manufacturing. Madison Estes then returns with the article 'Maintaining strategic stability with the development of Conventional Prompt Global Strike systems’ Verification Watch discusses DPRK sanctions, followed by a brief description of the process of next week's election of the OPCW Director-General. Science and Technology Scan has three articles, 'Forensic wood identification: improving compliance through science', 'New developments in warhead verification methods' and 'Monitoring mechanisms at gas centrifuge enrichment plants.'

Issue no. 156, Spring 2017

Madison Estes article 'Rebuilding Trust through Verification Reinstatement in the INF, An Opportunity for Improving U.S.-Russia Relations,' considers recent developments under the 1987 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty. Plus: Verification Watch, Implementation Watch, Science & Technology Scan, Verification Quotes and VERTIC News.

Issue no. 155, Winter 2017

Maӱlis David, Ekaterina Konovalova, and Clarisse Bertherat consider the outcome of the Biological Weapons Convention Eighth Review Conference that took place in November last year. Plus: Verification Watch, Implementation Watch, Science & Technology Scan and VERTIC News.

Issue no. 154, Autumn 2016

James Revill, Caitriona McLeish, Alex Spelling and Brian Balmer discusses the implementation of Article X of the Biological Weapons Convention. Simeon Dukic and Matteo Zerini examines two nuclear tests ten years apart.

Issue no. 153, Summer 2016

Daniel Davies discusses the implications of Brexit on nuclear safeguards. Hartwig Spitzer returns to give an update on recent developments in Open Skies: 

Issue no. 152, January-March 2016

Hugh Chalmers discusses whether North Korea can produce tritium for second generation nuclear devices. He then returns, together with Angela Woodward, to consider a future research proposal for space. The issue is available as: 

Issue no. 151, October-December 2015

In this issue, James Revill and Caitríona McLeish discuss the cost of compliance options for the BWC. The issue also includes regular features Verification Watch, Science & Technology Scan and Centre News.

Issue no. 150, July-September 2015

In this issue, Cindy Vestergaard discusses safeguards for the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle. The issue also includes regular features Verification Watch, Implementation Watch, Science & Technology Scan, Programme News and Verification Quotes.

Issue no. 149, April-June 2015

In this issue, Hugh Chalmers, Sonia Drobysz and Andreas Persbo reflect on events at the recent NPT Review Conference and what they mean for matters of nuclear verification in the years ahead. The issue also includes regular features Verification Watch, Science & Technology Scan, Programme News and Verification Quotes.

Issue no. 148, January-March 2015

In this issue, Ian Stewart takes an in-depth look at UNSC resolution 1540 and illicit trade in dual-use items and technologies. He reports on the work of Project Alpha, which works to understand and counter illicit trade. The issue also includes regular features Verification Watch, Science & Technology Scan, Programme News and Verification Quotes.
 

Issue no. 147, October-December 2014

In this issue, Carl Miller of UK think-tank Demos assesses the impact of social media on non-proliferation. Plus: Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, Programme and Publications News, and verification quotes from the past three months.
 

Issue no. 146, July-September 2014

In this issue, Hartwig Spitzer considers developments in the implementation of the Open Skies treaty, and how the agreement has functioned during the conflict in Ukraine. Plus: Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, Events and Publications, and VERTIC programme news.  

Issue no. 145, April-June 2014

In this issue, Gudrun Harrer looks back at the IAEA's nuclear inspection effort in Iraq in the 1990s. Plus: Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, Events and Publications, and VERTIC programme news.
 

Issue no. 144, January-March 2014

In this issue, David Cliff considers future verification challenges for nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament. Plus: Verification Watch, Science & Technology Scan, Verification Quotes and VERTIC News.
 

Issue no. 143, October-December 2013

In this issue, Mark Hibbs considers the nuclear deal reached between Iran and the 'P5+1' late last year. Plus: Verification Watch, Science & Technology Scan and VERTIC News.

Issue no. 142, July-September 2013

In this issue, David Cliff addresses the practical implementation of the deal to rid Syria of its chemical warfare agents while Yasemin Balci considers legal issues surrounding the possession and use of these weapons in Syria. Plus: Verification Watch, Science & Technology Scan, VERTIC News and a special expanded edition of Verification Quotes.
 

Issue no. 141, April-June 2013

In this issue, Dr Itshak Lederman recalls his experience in setting up the CTBTO on-site inspection training programme, Ambassador Jo Adamson discusses the recently agreed Arms Trade Treaty and prospects for its implementation, and Lord Browne of Ladyton puts forward arguments for multilateral nuclear disarmament. Plus: Verification Watch, Science & Technology Scan, Verification Quotes and VERTIC News.

Issue no. 140, January-March 2013

In this issue, Hassan Elbahtimy and David Keir discuss seismic and infrasound detections of the recent North Korean nuclear test and Russian meteor strike. Plus: Verification Watch, Science & Technology Scan, Verification Quotes and VERTIC News.

Issue no. 139, October-December 2012

In this issue, Jesus S. Domingo discusses the impact of the BWC 'Superweek' on cooperation and coordination in the East Asia & Pacific region and beyond. Plus: Verification Watch, Science & Technology Scan, Verification Quotes, Publications and Events, and VERTIC News.
 

Issue no. 138, July-September 2012

In this issue, the NIM team discusses legislative measures related to proliferation concerns surrounding H5N1 research.  Plus, as usual: Verification Watch, Science & Technology Scan, Verification Quotes, Programme News, and reflections by the Executive Director.
 

Issue no. 137, April-June 2012

In this issue Tamara Patton looks at using 3D modeling for Verification Design and Sonia Drobysz examines safeguards following the NPT PrepCom. Plus: Verification Watch, Science & Technology Scan, Verification Quotes, Programme News, and reflections by the director. 

This issue is now also available in epub and Kindle mobi format (beta versions).

Issue no. 136, January-March 2012

In this issue Gregory Briner looks at the implications for climate change monitoring after the 'COP17' conference in Durban, David Keir ponders the use of robotics in nuclear warhead dismantlement verification, and Scott Spence addresses the evolution of the VERTIC National Implementation Measures programme. Plus: Verification Watch, Science & Technology Scan, Verification Quotes, Programme News from around the organisation, and reflections by the director. This issue also remembers the life of the verification practitioner Brian Jones, who died in February 2012.
 

Issue no. 135, October-December 2011

In this issue David Cliff addresses verification options for a Weapons of Mass Destruction-Free Zone in the Middle East and assesses the importance of the CTBT for regional and global security. Plus: Verification Watch, Science & Technology Scan, Verification Quotes and Programme News (with a special feature looking back over VERTIC’s 25th anniversary year). This issue also includes some end-of-year reflections by VERTIC’s Executive Director Andreas Persbo, and a past VERTIC director, Trevor Findlay, remembers former VERTIC Board member Susan Willett, who passed away earlier this year.
 

Issue no. 134, July-September 2011

In this issue Sonia Drobysz looks at recent changes in the IAEA safeguards system, while Rocio Escauriaza Leal writes on the challenges and opportunities associated with efforts to secure universal acceptance of the Biological Weapons Convention. Plus, Verification Watch, Science & Technology Scan, Verification Quotes, Programme News and reflections by the Executive Director.

Issue no. 133, April-June 2011

In this issue Nicholas Sims looks ahead to the Seventh Review Conference of BWC states parties in December, while Mikael Shirazi and Andreas Persbo discuss the importance of the IAEA’s Additional Protocol in preventing the clandestine development of uranium enrichment facilities. Plus, Verification Watch, Verification Quotes and a special Science & Technology Scan with a travel report on the CTBT’s 2011 Science & Technology Conference by Kristiane Roe Hammer.

Issue no. 132, January-March 2011

In this issue Achala Chandani Abeysinghe reviews progress in the climate negotiations while John Carlson discusses the Additional Protocol. Plus Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, programme news and verification quotes.

Issue no. 131, October-December 2010

Scott Spence discusses the role of legislation in preventing and responding to chemical terrorism, while Andreas Persbo looks at the potential for arms control confidence-building measures between India and Pakistan. Plus, a VERTIC statement delivered by Scott Spence on the challenges of regulating biosecurity and, as usual: Verification Watch, Science & Technology Scan, Verification Quotes, staff news and reflections by the Executive Director.

Issue no. 130, July-September 2010

Hartwig Spitzer returns to deliver an update on the progress of open-skies implementation, Justin Alger discusses the safeguards and non-proliferation implications of the nuclear revival. Also verification watch, verification quotes, science and technology scan, Centre news and events as well as a note from the Executive Director.

Issue no. 129, April-June 2010

Hugh Chalmers assesses the state of climate change verification after Copenhagen while David Cliff looks back at the 2010 NPT Review Conference. Also verification watch, verification quotes, science and technology scan, staff news and a note from the Executive Director.

Issue no. 128, January-March 2010

David Cliff raises issues for consideration in the 2010 NPT Review Conference, Angela Woodward discusses biological and chemical terrorism and Joy Hyvarinen looks beyond the Copenhagen Climate Change Conference. Plus Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan and VERTIC News and Events.

Issue no. 127, October-December 2009

Bharath Gopalaswarmy discusses infrasound technology while Jasper Pandza sheds light on how one can use Landsat 7 images and Photoshop with remarkable results.

Issue no. 126, July-September 2009

Hassan ElBahtimy discusses verified nuclear disarmament, Richard Guthrie writes about the 2009 BWC Meeting of Experts and Andreas Persbo writes about requirements for a verified ban on fissile material production for weapons purposes.

Issue no. 125, April-June 2009

Andreas Persbo recalls discussions with Iranians, while Sir Hugh Beach ponders the state of the nuclear safeguards regime. Plus Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan and VERTIC News and Events.

Issue no. 124, March-October 2007

Volker Beck examines the status of reporting and reviewing under UN Security Council Resolution 1540, while Daryl Kimball assesses the prospects for US ratification of the CTBT. Plus a detailed look at the challenges facing CITES, as well as the regular features: Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, and VERTIC News and Events.

Issue no. 123, March 2006-March 2007

Jan Lodding and Bernardo Ribeiro examine the international nuclear safeguards regime, while Oliver Dambock assesses reporting under multilateral environmental agreements. VERTIC turned 20 in 2006, and fittingly, we were busier than ever furthering the cause of verification-speaking at seminars and workshops around the world, redesigning the website and, as always, publishing articles, chapters and reports in our own products and those of our non-governmental and international organization colleagues. This issue provides a summary of what we did, what we published, who joined or left the centre, who supported our work with grants and commissions, and what the media asked us over the course of the past year. Finally, there are the regular features: Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, VERTIC News and Events and Verification Quotes.

Issue no. 122, October 2005-February 2006

John Carlson examines the role that bilateral nuclear safeguards can play in providing non-proliferation assurance, while Matt Peterson reviews the work of the Aceh Monitoring Mission and explores the EU's latest approach to monitoring peace agreements. Plus Verification Watch and VERTIC News and Events.

Issue no. 121, July-September 2005

Sean West examines some of the challenges to CTBT entry into force, while
Yana Feldman and Beth Nikitin explore Saudi Arabia’s Small Quantities Protocol. Plus Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, Peace Missions Monitor and VERTIC News and Events.

Issue no. 120, May-June 2005

Andreas Persbo assesses the North Korean nuclear problem, while Duncan Brack examines the European Union (EU)’s Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Action Plan. Plus all of the usual features: Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, Peace Missions Monitor, Verification Quotes and VERTIC News and Events.

Issue no. 119, March–April 2005

Andreas Persbo looks towards the 2005 NPT Review Conference, while Oliver Meier examines the use of test ban monitoring data by tsunami warning organizations. Plus all of the usual features: Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, Peace Missions Monitor, Verification Quotes and VERTIC News and Events.

Issue no. 118, JanuaryFebruary 2005

Samir Puri examines international election observation in Ukraine, while Larry MacFaul looks at progress made at COP10 and future climate change challenges. Plus Verification Watch, Peace Missions Monitor, Verification Quotes and VERTIC News and Events.

Issue no. 117, November–December 2004

David Young looks at a new way of independently monitoring forestry activities, while Erik Asplund considers the compromise deal on the application of nuclear safeguards in Brazil. Plus Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, Verification Quotes and VERTIC News and Events. A special feature, Election Monitor, replaces Peace Missions Monitor in this issue.

Issue no. 116, September–October 2004

Daryl Kimball examines the prospects for the negotiation of a fissile material cut-off treaty, while Angela Woodward looks at the UN Secretary-General’s mechanism for investigating alleged use of chemical and biological weapons. Plus all of the usual features: Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, Peace Missions Monitor, Verification Quotes and VERTIC News and Events.

Issue no. 115, July–August 2004

Kristie Barrow assesses attempts to deal with the RDD threat, while Jessica McLaughlin examines nuclear verification technology research in the US. Plus all of the usual features: Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, Peace Missions Monitor, Verification Quotes and VERTIC News and Events.

Issue no. 114, May–June 2004

Jessica McLaughlin analyzes arrangements for protecting the confidentiality of verification information, while Kristie Barrow looks at peace monitoring in Northern Ireland. Plus all of the usual features: Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, Peace Missions Monitor, Verification Quotes and VERTIC News and Events.

Issue no. 113, March–April 2004

Kavita Rajagopalan looks at the lack of monitoring and verification in the India–Pakistan conflict, while Larry MacFaul examines European unity in regard to action on climate change. Plus all of the usual features: Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, Peace Missions Monitor, Verification Quotes and VERTIC News and Events.

Issue no. 112, January–February 2004

Jack Boureston, Yana Feldman and Charles Mahaffey assess Libya’s WMD capabilities and related verification challenges, while Ben Mines examines developments regarding the Iraq Survey Group. Plus all of the usual features: Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, Peace Missions Monitor, Verification Quotes and VERTIC News and Events.

Issue no. 111, November–December 2003

Larry MacFaul examines the climate change reporting system, while Jennifer Kinzeler assesses peace monitoring in Liberia. Plus all of the usual features: Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, Peace Missions Monitor, Verification Quotes and VERTIC News and Events.

Issue no. 110, September–October 2003

Angela Woodward examines the legislation that states parties to the Biological Weapons Convention must adopt in order to meet their fundamental treaty
obligations, while Trevor Findlay and Peter Gudritz assess monitoring challenges in Africa. Plus all of the usual features: Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, Peace Missions Monitor, Verification Quotes and VERTIC News and Events.

Issue no. 109, July–August 2003

Jean Pascal Zanders introduces the BioWeapons Prevention Project and highlights its objectives, while Ben Mines examines developments in the hunt for Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction. Plus all of the usual features: Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, Peace Missions Monitor, Verification Quotes and VERTIC News and Events.

Issue no. 108, May–June 2003

Trevor Findlay and Ben Mines assess the situation regarding Iraq’s alleged weapons of mass destruction, while Molly Anderson looks at the problem of quantifying sustainable development. Plus all of the usual features: Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, Peace Missions Monitor, Verification Quotes and VERTIC News and Events.

Issue no. 107, March–April 2003

Ben Mines looks at the successes of both the IAEA and UNMOVIC in Iraq since November 2002, while Kenneth Boutin uses the Iraqi case to highlight the factors that can hinder the effectiveness of verification. Plus all of the usual features: Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, Peace Missions Monitor, Verification Quotes and VERTIC News and Events.

Issue no. 106, January–February 2003

Kenneth Boutin assesses the nuclear crisis in North Korea and its consequences for the global nonproliferation regime, while Alex Wood analyses UNMOVIC’s potential for success in Iraq. Plus a review of the Yearbook on International Co-operation on Environment and Development 2002/2003 and all of the usual features: Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, Peace Missions Monitor, Verification Quotes and VERTIC News and Events.

Issue no. 105, November–December 2002

Trevor Findlay analyses the challenges facing the UN inspection mission in Iraq, while Kenneth Boutin assesses methods of verifying technology transfer controls. Plus all of the usual features: Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, Peace Missions Monitor, Verification Quotes and VERTIC News and Events.

Issue no. 104, September–October 2002

Kristina Hinds assesses monitoring in the Congo, John Hart offers a timely book review on Iraq’s nuclear and biological weapons agenda, while Molly Anderson and Vanessa Chagas reflect on the Johannesburg summit. Plus Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, Verification Quotes and VERTIC News and Events.

Issue no. 103, July–August 2002

Nikolai Sokov analyses the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty, while Alexandra González-Calatayud reviews Earth Summit 2002: A New Deal, edited by Felix Dodds. Plus all of the usual features: Peace Missions Monitor, Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, Verification Quotes and VERTIC News and Events.

Issue no. 102, May–June 2002

Trevor Findlay assesses the turmoil surrounding the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, while Vanessa Chagas examines the Agenda 21 monitoring mechanism. In addition, all of the usual features: Peace Missions Monitor, Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, Verification Quotes and VERTIC News and Events.

Issue no. 101, March–April 2002

Tom Milne examines global spending on nuclear disarmament verification work, while Mirak Raheem assesses the challenges facing the Temporary International Presence in Hebron. In addition, all of the usual features: Peace Missions Monitor, Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, Verification Quotes and VERTIC News and Events.

Issue no. 100, January–February 2002

The first edition of Trust & Verify was published in June 1989 by the then Verification Technology Information Centre. VERTIC, just three years old, was headed by Patricia Lewis and was based in Southampton Street, London. The founding editor of Trust & Verify was John Grounds and the co-editor was Julie Cator. Richard Guthrie later became its long-serving editor. The first edition dealt entirely with arms control and disarmament verification, as that was VERTIC’s original brief. After 1989 VERTIC broadened its agenda to encompass any international agreement that requires monitoring and verification, particularly environmental and peace accords. To mark the 100th edition of Trust & Verify, we present a bumper issue, with a lead article examining how far verification of arms control and disarmament agreements has come since issue number one. Trust & Verify wishes all of its readers a peaceful and prosperous new year.

Issue no. 99, September–October 2001

David Hegarty assesses peace monitoring in the Solomon Islands, Rosalind Reeve analyses the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), while Molly Anderson examines the outcome of the COP6 environmental meeting. In addition, all of the usual features: Peace Missions Monitor, Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, Verification Quotes and VERTIC News and Events.

Issue no. 98, July–August 2001

Trevor Findlay looks at the prospects for the biological weapons protocol, while Angela Woodward examines the issue of domestic enabling legislation for the Landmine Convention. In addition, all of the usual features: Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, Verification Quotes, Book Reviews and VERTIC News and Events.

Issue no. 97, May–June 2001

Oliver Meier assesses verification measures for the proposed biological weapons protocol, while John Russell examines the end of on-site verification under the Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces Treaty. In addition, all of the usual features: Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, Peace Missions Monitor, Verification Quotes and VERTIC News and Events.

Issue no. 96, March–April 2001

Professor Terry Wallace analyses whether Iraq conducted a nuclear weapons test, John Hart looks at the financial crisis facing the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, while Rosalie Gardiner and Clare Tenner analyse preparations for the 2002 Earth Summit. In addition, all of the usual features: Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, Peace Missions Monitor, Verification Quotes, Book Reviews and VERTIC News and Events. 

Issue no. 95, January-February 2001

‘Verifiable control of ballistic missile proliferation’, Elena Petkova and Kevin Baumert examine the Aarhus Convention and Clare Tenner looks at the collapse of the COP6 climate change negotiations. In addition: Peace Missions Monitor, Verification Quotes, Verification Watch, Science & Technology Scan and VERTIC News and Events.
 

Issue no. 94, November 2000

‘CTBT verifiable with high probability’, two articles by John Hart on verifying the destruction of stockpiled chemical weapons and of old and abandoned chemical weapons. In addition: Peace Missions Monitor, Verification Quotes, Verification Watch, Science & Technology Scan and VERTIC News and Events.
 

Issue no. 93, September 2000

Clare Tenner on climate change and verification, book reviews on nuclear testing and commercial satellite imaging by Oliver Meier, plus Verification Watch, Science and Technology Scan, Verification Quotes, and VERTIC news and events. See the back page for information on the Verification Yearbook 2000.
 

Issue no. 92, July 2000

Trust & Verify focuses on two studies published in April by the British government (see www.mod.uk). They deal with nuclear transparency and verification and were foreshadowed in the July 1998 Strategic Defence Review. Although they do not fulfil their mandate in all respects, the reports deserve to be highlighted since they represent an initial attempt by one nuclear weapon state to meet its commitment to nuclear disarmament-reinforced by the recent Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference. In VERTIC's view, the two reports should lead to further steps by the British government and emulation by the other nuclear weapon possessors.
 

Issue no. 91, May 2000

‘Verifying the military aspects of peace accords’, also Michael Miggins on the Open Skies Treaty, Kyoto Verification complexities, Peace monitoring Developments, plus Verification Watch and Science & Technology Scan
 

Issue no. 90, March 2000

‘State compliance with the Ottawa convention – Self-reporting slow and loose’, also in this issue Andrew Rathmell on the Information Revolution and Verification, plus Verification Watch, Science & Technology Scan and VERTIC News
 

Issue no. 89, February 2000

‘Verification of the Biological Weapons Convention – Politics, Science and industry’, plus Verification Watch, Science & Technology Scan and VERTIC News
 

Issue no. 88, November 1999

‘US Senate Test Ban vote – limiting the damage to verification’, ‘Climate change Negotiations: Towards 2000 Endgame?’, plus Verification Watch, and VERTIC News
 

Issue no. 87, September 1999

‘Safeguarding nuclear materials and verification research – potential UK/ Russia Co-operation’, ‘An organization for the prohibition of Biological Weapons?’, plus Verification Watch, Science & Technology Scan and VERTIC News
 

Issue no. 86, July 1999

‘Climate Talks Spotlight Verification’, plus Verification Watch and VERTIC News
 

Issue no. 85, May 1999

‘Putting it together – Nuclear Test Ban Verification’, ‘UNSCOM’s trials and tribulations chronicled’, plus Verification Watch and VERTIC News
 

Issue no. 84, April 1999

‘Climate Change – Quiet Progress in Compliance Mechanisms’, ‘The Kosovo Verification Mission – Withdrawn but not Disgraced’, ‘Northern Ireland – verified decommissioning still frustrated’, VERTIC News
 

Issue no. 83, November 1998

Trevor Findlay looks at the Landmine Monitor Pioneering ‘Track two’ Verification, Kathryn Klebacha on ‘The Kosovo Verification Experiment’, Genevieve Forde on ‘Northern Ireland Decommissioning Verification: The Missile Element’. Also includes Verification watch and VERTIC News.
 

Issue no. 82, September 1998

‘Britain’s Contribution to Monitoring Nuclear Tests’ by Tom Milne, ‘Biological Weapons Protocol Update’ by Graham S. Pearson, plus Verification Watch and VERTIC News.

Issue no. 81, July 1998 

‘Sheriff or Cowboy? US Compliance Dilemmas’ by Eric Arnett, also Verification Watch and VERTIC News.

Issue no. 80, May 1998

‘The Indian and Pakistani tests: Did verification fail?’ by Trevor Findlay and Roger Clark, ‘Better late than never: Biological Weapons Verification’ by Trevor Findlay and Suzanna van Moyland. Plus VERTIC News. 
  

Issue no. 79, March 1998

‘Verifying Iraq’, ‘The Non-Proliferation Treaty: Strengthened Review, Strengthened Safeguards’, plus Verification Watch and VERTIC News
 

Issue no. 78, February 1998

‘Northern Ireland: Verifying Decommissioning’, ‘Coping with uncertainty: Verifying the Kyoto Protocol’, plus Verification Watch and VERTIC News
 

Issue no. 77, September 1997

‘Ottawa Process’, ‘Cuba BW allegations’, ‘Open Skies – flight over Bosnia’, ‘Activities on Korean peninsula’, ‘Climate negotiations – AGBM VII’
 

Issue no. 76, August 1997

‘Vienna Document 94 – ‘Observation of Military Activity’’, ‘Conventional Armed forces in Europe’, ‘Itavia aircraft loss – radar data released’, ‘Climate negotiations – UN special session’
 

Issue no. 75, May-July 1997

‘IAEA – New Model Additional Protocol Approved’, ‘Editorial Comment – the United States – an attempt to gut the CWC?’, ‘New British government’, ‘Anti-Personnel Mines – the Ottawa Process’ continues’, ‘Open Skies’, ‘NATO – Russia Founding Act on Mutual relations’, ‘Russia – alleged arms transfer to Armenia’, ‘New UNSCOM Chair’, ‘Recent treaty actions’, ‘VERTIC director to move UNIDIR’
 

Issue no. 74, March/April 1997

‘Chemical Weapons Convention – Preparations for implementation’, ‘Helsinki Summit Meeting’, ‘CTBT Organization Preparatory Commission’, ‘Climate Convention Negotiations’
 

Issue no. 73, January-February 1997

‘VERTIC Transcaucasus Conference’, ‘Non-Parties to Arms Control Treaties’, ‘The Climate Convention Negotiations’, ‘The Climate Convention Negotiations’, and an overview of the Verification 1997: The VERTIC Yearbook. 
 

Issue no. 72, December 1996

‘BWC Review Conference’, ‘Gulf War syndrome’, ‘IAEA Safeguards – 93+2’
 

Issue no. 71, November 1996

‘CWC countdown to entry into force’, ‘CWC signatures and ratifications’, ‘Angola and Djibouti join the NPT’, ‘CTBT Preparatory Commission’, ‘UNGA 51 committee activities’, ‘Open skies exercise’
 

Issue no. 70, October 1996

‘Whatever happened to Open skies?’, ‘The Ottawa conference on Anti-personnel Mines’, plus ‘In the News’
 

Issue no. 69, September 1996

‘The CTBT is opened for signature’, ‘Editorial – the US Senate and the CWC’, ‘The report of the Canberra Commission – Executive summary’, ‘The CTBT resolution at the UN’, plus 'VERTIC news'  
 

Issue no. 68, August 1996

‘Nuclear testing news’, ‘The Vienna Convention on the law of treaties’, ‘Climate negotiations’, plus ‘In the News’ and ‘VERTIC news’
 

Issue no. 67, July 1996

Test Ban Treaty Special Edition
 

Issue no. 66, May/June 1996

‘Georgia hot line’, ‘Test Ban News’, ‘Moscow Nuclear Summit’, ‘Anti-Personnel Mines’, ‘A sideways look – verification and mad cows’, plus ‘In the News’ and ‘VERTIC news’  
 

Issue no. 65, April 1996

‘US releases chemical and nuclear information’, ‘Confidence and security-building measures for Bosnia’, ‘The US military and anti-personnel mines’, ‘UK and ballistic missile defences’, ‘Radar data wanted to verify Itavia aircraft’s last moments’ also ‘In the News’ and ‘VERTIC news’
 

Issue no. 64, February-March 1996

‘Last French nuclear test’, ‘Scott Report released’, ‘VERTIC birthday conference’, VERTIC News and Verification 1996 Contents
 

Issue no. 63, January 1996

‘Nuclear-weapon-free zones supplement’, ‘Non-parties to treaties’, ‘UK and export controls’
 

Issue no. 62, November-December 1995

‘CWC ratification progress’, ‘Climate Change negotiations’, ‘Biodiversity conference of the parties’
 

Issue no. 61, October 1995

‘France’s second test: Smaller than claimed or seismic oddity?’, ‘Rarotonga Treaty Protocols’, ‘VERTIC in the European Parliament’
 

Issue no. 60, September 1995

‘First nuclear test in the new French programme’, ‘Climate Negotiations’, ‘VERTIC in the Transcaucasus’
 

Issue no. 59, August 1995

‘China tests again’, ‘CTBT moves by France and the US’
 

Issue no. 58, June-July 1995

‘France and nuclear testing’, ‘Anti-Personnel Mine moves’, ‘VERTIC’s Georgia youth project’

Issue no. 57, May 1995

‘Non-Proliferation Treaty Conference’, ‘Progress on the Climate Convention’, ‘VERTIC Conference in Georgia’
 

Issue no. 56, April 1995

‘Estimates of the British nuclear stockpile’, ‘CD statements’, ‘Verification 1995 launch’
 

Issue no. 55, March 1995

‘Editorial – Security Assurances’, ‘Iraq and Biological Weapons’, ‘Hydronuclear Experiments’
 

Issue no. 54, January-February 1995

‘US and nuclear testing’, ‘North Korean statement’, ‘United Kingdom and the CWC’, ‘US tritium production’
 

Issue no. 53, December 1994

‘Operation Sapphire’, ‘Ukraine and the NPT’, ‘US-DPRK agreement’
 

Issue no. 52, November 1994

‘UN Arms Register Returns’, ‘US-North Korea agreement’, ‘Control of nuclear materials’
 

Issue no. 51, October 1994

‘China tests’, ‘BWC Special Conference’, ‘Yeltsin UN speech’
 

Issue no. 50, September 1994

‘Plutonium smuggling’, ‘Intangible technologies’, ‘Reactor-grade bomb questions’
 

Issue no. 49, August 1994

Special Edition – The Non-Proliferation Treaty: Options for 1995


Issue no. 48, June-July 1994

‘China tests’, ‘IAEA and North Korea’, ‘Climate Change Convention status’
 

Issue no. 47, May 1994

‘Arms Register return’, ‘The Red Mercury saga’, ‘Acronym CTB report published’
 

Issue no. 46, April 1994

‘CoCom replacement’, ‘UNSCOM activities’, ‘Verification 1994 completed’
 

Issue no. 45, March 1994

‘’Catching the Cheat’ – VERTIC seminar reports’, ‘IAEA and North Korea’, ‘UK-Russia missile targeting agreement’
 

Issue no. 44, January-February 1994

‘The IAEA/ Iraq confidentiality agreement – the IAEA’s view’, ‘CTB talks start’, ‘NPT PrepCom II’
 

Issue no. 43, December 1993

‘Ukraine and START’, ‘UN First Committee and verification’, ‘UK Trident warhead numbers’


Issue no. 42, November 1993

‘United Nations Arms Register’, ‘Iraq and nuclear weapons’, ‘Ukraine and nuclear weapons’
 

Issue no. 41, October 1993

‘China tests’, ‘BWC verification a step closer’, ‘Ukraine-Russia nuclear agreement confusion’


Issue no. 40, September 1993

‘Chinese test imminent?’, ‘CD to discuss a CTB’, ‘Climate Change: Eighth INC meeting’
 

Issue no. 39, July-August 1993

‘US extends nuclear testing moratorium’, ‘British defence white paper’, ‘Open skies test flight’
 

Issue no. 38, June 1993

‘North Korea and the NPT’, ‘NPT PrepCom I’, ‘US testing plans’
 

Issue no. 37, May 1993

‘Chemical traces in Iraq’, ‘NPT PrepCom I’, ‘OPCW PrepCom III’, ‘Nuclear testing’
 

Issue no. 36, March-April 1993

‘North Korea to withdraw from the NPT?’, ‘South African nuclear weapons’, ‘CWC Preparatory Commission’
 

Issue no. 35, January-February 1993

‘CWC signed in Paris’, ‘START II agreed’, ‘Special CWC pull-out briefing’
 

Issue no. 34, December 1992

‘CWC resolution passed by UN General Assembly’, ‘Climate Change meeting’, ‘CFE ratification’
 

Issue no. 33, November 1992

‘The Matrix Churchill scandal’, ‘CFE enters force’, ‘CWC passes through UN First Committee’
 

Issue no. 32, October 1992

‘US nuclear testing restrictions become law’, ‘CFE inspection update’, ‘Open Skies test flight’
 

Issue no. 31, September 1992

‘CD agrees CWC text’, ‘Moscow confirms BWC breach’, ‘Nuclear testing update’, ‘Bush speech to the UN’, ‘UK, France and nuclear dumping’, ‘US to buy Russian uranium’, ‘Japanese plutonium shipments’
 

Issue no. 30, July-August 1992

‘Bush Non-Proliferation statement’, ‘Nuclear testing’, ‘Fissile Material cut-off’, ‘CFE provisionally applied’, ‘CFE1A Signed’, ‘Future Chinese nuclear tests on the horizon’
 

Issue no. 29, June 1992

‘Rio Earth summit’, ‘CWC text agreed?’, ‘CFE update’, ‘Nuclear testing’,
 

Issue no. 28, May 1992

‘Framework Convention on Climate change’, ‘Nuclear testing update’, ‘CIS and START’, ‘Biological weapons’
 

Issue no. 27, April 1992

‘Soviet nuclear warheads to Iran?’, ‘VERTIC climate change report’, ‘Nuclear testing’, ‘Algeria’s Oussera Complex’
 

Issue no. 26, February-March 1992

‘Helsinki 1992’, ‘Open Skies’, ‘Testing Yeltsin’, ‘CIS update’, ‘The IAEA’, ‘Iraq’, ‘CFE’
 

Issue no. 25, January 1992

‘The Soviet Republics and Arms Control’, ‘CBW Conference’, ‘START Update’, ‘Non-Proliferation Treaty update’, ‘CFE and CFE1a update’
 

Issue no. 24, November 1991

‘Nuclear testing moves’, ‘Breakthrough on Open Skies’, ‘Soviet Optimism over CFE ratification’, ‘The break-up of the USSR and nuclear proliferation’, ‘Iraq and non-proliferation’, ‘Update on Iraqi Chemical Weapon capabilities’, ‘Pressure on North Korea over alleged nuclear weapons programme’,
 

Issue no. 23, October 1991

‘Biological Weapons Convention third review conference’, ‘Iraqi nuclear programme could be revived – IAEA to reconsider safeguards’, ‘Bush-Gorbachev start to climb down nuclear ladder’
 

Issue no. 22, September 1991

‘Biological Weapons Convention review conference’, ‘Soviet disintegration – impact on verification’, ‘VERTIC START report’, ‘Smaller spacecraft for EOS launches’, ‘First ERS-1 SAR image’, ‘Further lessons from Gulf satellites’, ‘US angers allies over chemical inspections’, ‘Tritium safeguards project’
 

Issue no. 21, July-August 1991

‘USA and USSR finally make a START’, ‘UN inspectors in Iraq – Bluff and double bluff’, ‘Glimmer of light for Open Skies’, ‘Conference on disarmament – recent documentation’, ‘US chemical inspection proposal’, ‘NATO’s verification coordination committee’, ‘South Africa to sign NPT’
 

Issue no. 20, June 1991

‘UN Inspectors in Iraq’, ‘Suspected Algerian nuclear facility’, ‘France to join NPT’, ‘French spy satellites – “Essential”’, ‘Untied States to destroy chemical stocks’, ‘CFE obstacles overcome’
 

Issue no. 19, April-May 1991

‘Radar revolution’, ‘CFE in the balance’, ‘START talks resume’, ‘Iraq: details of NBC and ballistic missiles’, ‘Soviet testing discussed at US workshop’, ‘Helios – restricted access’
 

Issue no. 18, March 1991

‘Lessons of the Gulf War’, ‘EOS gold mine’, ‘Japan proposes international satellite agency’, ‘CFE tanks in storage’, ‘British government publishes CFE bill’, ‘Ex-WTO states to assist CFE verification’, ‘SNF on hold’, ‘Chemical Weapons Convention’, ‘CTBT verification’
 

Issue no. 17, February 1991

‘Partial Test Ban Treaty Remains Partial’, ‘Satellites, verification and the Gulf crisis’, ‘Future of arms talks uncertain’, ‘UNIDIR report on aerial verification’
 

Issue no. 16, December 1990-January 1991

‘Verification of CFE’, ‘A future for Open Skies’, ‘AWACS splits NATO’, ‘Verification opportunities for business’, ‘START signature for February’, ‘Satellites in the Gulf’, ‘Radar Satellites for Earth Observation Fleet’, ‘Maralinga cleanup’,
 

Issue no. 15, November 1990

‘CFE treaty signed’, ‘UN verification study’, ‘Conference on disarmament – Test Ban verification’, ‘Verification costs - forecasts’
 

Issue no. 14, October 1990

‘TTBT/PNET hearings and ratification’, ‘NPT review conference fails to agree on communique’, ‘Biological weapons convention – proposals for third review conference’, ‘Arming Iraq’, ‘Verification costs – a German view’, ‘CFE agreement in principle’, ‘EOSAT Gulf images in demand’
 

Issue no. 13, August-September 1990

‘Satellites and the Gulf crisis’, ‘Major pre-treaty verification experiment for START’, ‘GDR, Canada, China – proposals to conference on disarmament for chemical weapons verification’, ‘Fears over cost of verification and speed of arms control success’, ‘The UN and verification’, ‘TTBT/PNET ratification hearings’
 

Issue no. 12, July 1990

‘UK presents paper on Chemical Weapons Convention challenge inspections to the conference on disarmament’, ‘Johnston Island Programme’, ‘NATO CFE Verification Staff’, ‘CD nuclear test ban committee’, ‘Laser verification programme’
 

Issue no. 11, June 1990

‘TTBT/PNET verification measures strengthened’, ‘START – the future’, ‘Pressure on Brazil to sign NPT’, ‘Agreements on chemical weapons – concern over destruction’, ‘Iraq and nuclear proliferation’, ‘Testing “Guinea-Pigs”?’
 

Issue no. 10, May 1990

‘Open Skies reopen and close’, ‘Teller wants brilliant pebbles’, ‘START – STOP - GO’, ‘Hurd pushes for troops agreement, WEU drives for arms accord’
 

Issue no. 9, April 1990

‘European satellite verification agency a possibility’, ‘Chemical Weapons Conference’, ‘US has to hasten gas withdrawal but may sue to acquire new gas shells’, ‘CFE negotiators focus on verification’, ‘UK defence estimates’
 

Issue no. 8, March 1990

‘Open skies – round one’, ‘CFE verification unit for Belgium’, ‘Verification proposals tabled’, ‘CSBM talks update’, ‘Relocation of Soviet nuclear test site’, ‘Chemical weapons ban within reach’, ‘Praise for soviet treaty compliance but clash over INF’, ‘British aerospace to form remote sensing company’, ‘More funding for US agencies to meet verification costs’
 

Issue no. 7, February 1990

‘British forces to be trained in verification’, ‘NATO test flight in Hungary signals optimism for "Open Skies" agreement’, ‘US postpones nuclear testing talks’, ‘Agreement on joint verification experiments’
 

Issue no. 6, December 1989-January 1990

‘News from Vienna: Verification problems, draft treaties, Eastern Europe’, ‘NRDC official review Black Sea Experiment’, ‘Soviet Union pushes for naval negotiations’, ‘INF on-site inspections offers lessons for START and CFE’
 

Issue no. 5, November 1989

‘Commercial satellites and verification’, ‘Chemical progress not all it seems’
 

Issue no. 4, October 1989

‘CFE talks resume – progress on aircrafts, troops and verification’, ‘Chemical weapons ban in sight?’, ‘Soviet N-test moratorium’, ‘Soviet rocks labelled “secret” by Pentagon’, ‘West European verification satellite under discussion’, ‘Baker-Shevardnadze talks smooth the way’
 

Issue no. 3, August-September 1989

‘NRDC/ Soviet academy experiments: A major step in SLCM verification’, ‘Chemical weapons: Progress or deadlock?’, ‘Soviet Union accepts pre-START verification measures’
 

Issue no. 2, July 1989

‘Verification of conventional force reductions’, ‘START opening position’, ‘The “Other” Vienna talks’, ‘Pre-Treaty Verification?’
 

Issue no. 1, June 1989

‘What is “Trust and Verify”?’, ‘What is VERTIC?’, ‘Progress on comprehensive test ban’, ‘Verification of an SNF treaty’, ‘SLCMs a stumbling block for START?’, ‘Chemical verification’, ‘Atomic energy’